A key part of planning for retirement is determining how much income you’ll need to meet your expenses in the years after you’ve finished working.
One expense that can’t be overlooked is the impact of taxes on your retirement income.
The tax realities of retirement
Taxes are a given during your working years, because income and payroll taxes are typically withheld from each paycheck. In retirement, however, your “paycheck” is created from a variety of income sources, and you’re responsible for making sure the appropriate taxes are paid.
Many people assume that their tax rate in retirement will be lower than it is pre-retirement. This isn’t always true; if you’ve accumulated significant savings in retirement, you may find that your cash flow from all income sources exceeds your earnings during your working years. You may also have fewer deductions to reduce your tax burden if, for instance, you no longer carry a mortgage.
Failure to account for taxes on your income could derail your plans. Preparing for them in advance can have a significant impact on how long your assets last in retirement.
Taxes and retirement income sources
The following are common sources of income in retirement and how they may be taxed.
A large portion of Americans will likely owe tax on their Social Security benefits. If you are single with “provisional income”1 above $25,000 or married-filing-jointly with provisional income above $32,000, some or most of your Social Security benefits will be subject to tax.
Annuity income is at least partially taxable and, in some cases, may be fully taxable. If contributions are made with pre-tax income, then annuity distributions are taxable at ordinary income tax rates. If contributions come from after-tax money, only the portion of distributions representing earnings generated by the account are subject to tax.
Tax qualified pensions
Since most pensions are funded with pre-tax dollars, your income would be taxed at your ordinary income rate.
If all contributions to the plan were made with pre-tax dollars, the full amount of the distribution is subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates.2 A direct rollover from a 401(k) or other workplace plans to an IRA can occur without any immediate tax consequences. This typically occurs upon retirement or when you leave an employer, but in certain cases can occur if you are still a participant in the plan.
Taxation of IRA distributions depends on the type of IRA from which you are drawing money:
- Tax-deductible IRAs – all distributions are subject to tax at ordinary income tax rates.
- Non-deductible IRAs – the portion of distributions attributable to contributions is not taxable, but the portion of distributions attributable to earnings is taxed at ordinary income tax rates.
- Roth IRAs – if holding period requirements are met, all distributions from Roth IRAs are tax-free.
Life insurance cash values
Cash surrender values of your life insurance policy can generally be accessed tax-free by first withdrawing the cumulative premiums you paid. The remaining cash value can be accessed on a tax-free basis by using it as collateral to obtain a policy loan.
Keep in mind that tapping into a policy’s cash value may reduce the available death benefit. In addition, if the policy loan plus cumulative loan interest ever exceeds the remaining policy cash value, the policy will lapse, resulting in no life insurance protection and a likely income tax surprise.
Preparing for taxes well in advance can have a significant impact on how long your assets last in retirement.
1 Provision income is determined by taking your Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI), which is your gross income minus certain adjustments, plus tax-exempt interest earned plus half of your Social Security benefit for the year.
2 Withdrawals made prior to age 59-1/2 may be subject to a penalty.